I don't know the exact order of things to consider, if you think there are more things to consider please leave a comment and explain your idea.
One of the most important think to address is of course how much will cost to implement the whole network. At this point, as a network architect you'll have to consider what type of equipment will the network contain. The following devices are the most common things that a network can contain:
hubs - used to interconnect devices by using a shared channel of communication (one collision domain).
switches - interconnect devices between each other but separates collision domains ( more expensive then hubs, but faster because dedicated bandwidth is used and no collisions occur). Switches create logical point-to-point communications between devices.
Routers - intermediary devices used to interconnect networks.
Access points - used by devices to have wireless access to the corporate network or the Internet .
Storage equipment (NAS ,SAS etc.) - used to store information. You'll have to consider here the type of storage equipment needed, the capacity, the speed etc.
IP telephones - telephones that communicate trough the IP protocol.
Printers - printing equipment.
Servers - machines dedicated to host critical services and applications.
Computers (Laptops, Desktops) - network hosts.
I'm sure there are many more but these are the main that I could think of.
When buying network devices like switches or routers think about the modular feature of them. This is an important aspect to check if your network is dynamic and you will have to install/uninstall modules on intermediary devices. Read more about Cisco Catalyst devices and their modular feature on Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cisco_Catalyst.
Intermediary devices can have different types of interfaces connected to them:
Lan - used on Local Area Connections.
Wan - used on Wide Area Connections.
Console - used by administrators to connect directly to the network device.
Aux - auxiliary port is usually used to connect an external modem.
You'll have to consider the individual and overall cost for all devices.
Another important factor is scalability. You'll have to think how will the network change in future and how easy will it be to expand it. By designing a good topology and by using good equipment and wiring, a network can be easily expanded.
A network topology can be either physical or logical. Physical topology refers on how devices are connected with each other while the logical topology refers to how devices communicate between them. There are many types of physical topologies but among them are:
Bus, Ring, Hierarchical, Star, Mesh, Partial Mesh, Line . The following image will display this concepts:
UTP types can be:
Straight-through - they are used to interconnect devices that operate on different network layers (switch to computer, switch to router etc.).
Crossover - used to interconnect devices that operate on the same network layers (switch to switch, router to router, computer to computer, computer to router, switch to hub etc.).
You can find more information about these two types of cables by searching with Google (www.google.com).
Fiber Optic - more expensive than UTP cable, much faster but harder to manage.
Wireless - Uses radio or microwave transmissions. Wiring is not used but this type of connection can interfere with other devices.
Redundancy is another factor that you'll have to keep in mind. The following quote from Wikipedia explains what exactly redundancy is:
"A goal of redundant topologies is to eliminate network downtime caused by a single point of failure. All networks need redundancy for enhanced reliability. Network reliability is achieved through reliable equipment and network designs that are tolerant to failures and faults. Networks should be designed to reconverge rapidly so that the fault is bypassed.
You will also have to consider IP addressing, choose a network address and a network mask. Consider creating different subnets for different departments or services (servers can be in a different subnet than normal hosts). You can either use VLSM or CIDR, I will talk about these two in a future post.
Another aspect to address is network security. You will have to implement network rules and policies, install firewalls, anti virus software etc. A network would have to be resistant against outside and inside threats. This is one of the most important things to consider.
Usually any big company has a telecommunications room (also known as server room). This is a specially designed place in which the most important network equipment is stored under strict rules. Most server rooms are equipped with ventilation systems that keep devices under a cooler temperature (in normal conditions under 20 degrees). Here all intermediary devices(switches, routers) that make up the network are installed in special designed racks among with patch cords and cables that interconnect them. Devices like Servers, UPS (Uninterruptible power supply), KVM switches, phone systems, firewalls, network patch panels are also stored in this room. This is where administrators interact with physical equipment, that's why devices have to be easy to manage. Network management is an important element to address, read about it on this article : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Network_management
What services will devices host? Servers can host services like E-mail, DNS, DHCP, Web-hosting etc. Network devices can have features like QoS (Quality of Service), NAT (Network address translation), VoIP (Voice over IP) etc. Installation, maintenance and troubleshoot of network services and applications is another important factor.
These are most important elements that you will need to take care of when implementing a network. I hope this will be an interesting post, stay tuned for more to come and have a wonderful day.